database for monitoring processes at global and regional levels.
D.V. Pisarev, A.M. Tarko
Russian University of Peoples Friendship
The work supported by RFBR (N 05-01-00649)
Mathematical modeling the global biospheric and climatic processes needs a plenty of data. For example there is a necessity to analyze concentration of CO2, methane, carbon oxide and other gases which were made at tens of monitoring stations within more than forty years. To understand the developments of the countries it is necessary not only ecological and climatic data but also data of demographic and social processes . The analysis of all together processes leads to necessity to have knowledge given from corresponding branches. It in turn needs a development of a database because incidental selection of data becomes frequent and rather labors-intensive process which in case of having a database is much more quickly and easier.
The aim of this work is developing a database of biospheric, climatic,
economic, demographic, and social processes at a global and regional level.
The database is intended to analyze global and regional biospheric processes
and to provide access to data for various researchers. The important task
of database is to give the opportunity to use data of dynamic models of
The database has been realized in MS Access 2003. This program represents
a modern powerful 32-bit control system of relational databases which can
solve a plenty of tasks including construction of diagrams, data presentation
on the Internet etc.
On designing database data the following institutions were used: the World Bank  http://www.worldbank.org , Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA) , Environmental Protection Agency (USA), Dorodnitsyn Computing Center, Russian Academy of Sciences , the Center on efficiency and safety of woods of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and also the scientific organizations , Institutes, Universities of Russia, USA, Japan, and other countries.
The information in a database is concentrated in the countries of the
world, in subjects of the Russian Federation, in ecosystem types the world
(classification of J. Olson ), on stations of geosphere monitoring ,
on several cities (basically data about pollution). Data about ecology,
climate, economy, demography, social processes are collected. Besides measured
parameters database contains calculated data from model of global biospheric
processes of A.M. Tarko  and calculated indexes of social and nature
development V.S. Golubev [7, 8].
The basic accent of database has been made on interrelation of carbon dioxide with various parameters because CO2 is one of the basic greenhouse gases of the atmosphere and is important factor determining climate of the Earth and processes in biosphere. The problem of CO2 analysis and modeling became especially actual in connection with acceptance in 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. According to the Convention it was to reduce by 2010 all the industrial emissions of all greenhouse gases up to a level of 1990. After this in 1997 the Kyoto protocol establishes targets for reduction of greenhouse gases emitted by industrialized countries.
In the given work with the purpose of presentation of some results received
on database queries were made for the countries of Europe and subjects
of the Russian Federation. The following major data were chosen: demographic
, economical (GNI per capita) , industrial CO2 releases , data
of calculations at A.M. Tarko's model [1, 4]: CO2 absorption by ecosystems
in countries and regions, CO2 budget (difference between industrial releases
and absorption by ecosystems), NPP, phytomass and soil humus. Then export
in HTML format was performed and the subsequent representation in Internet
in form of interactive maps of the Europe and
Russia has been made. Initial images of
maps and coordinates of the countries were taken from the Internet.