Interactive map of Europe        Interactive map of Rusia (in Russian)

Development of database for monitoring processes at global and regional levels. 
Interactive maps of Europe and Russia


D.V. Pisarev, A.M. Tarko

Russian University of Peoples Friendship 
Dorodnitsyn Computing Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences 


The work supported by RFBR (N 05-01-00649)

Mathematical modeling the global biospheric and climatic processes needs a plenty of data. For example there is a necessity to analyze concentration of CO2, methane, carbon oxide and other gases which were made at tens of monitoring stations within more than forty years. To understand the developments of the countries it is necessary not only ecological and climatic data but also data of demographic and social processes  [1]. The analysis of all together processes leads to necessity to have knowledge given from corresponding branches. It in turn needs a development of a database because incidental selection of data becomes frequent and rather labors-intensive process which in case of having a database is much more quickly and easier. 

The aim of this work is developing a database of biospheric, climatic, economic, demographic, and social processes at a global and regional level. The database is intended to analyze global and regional biospheric processes and to provide access to data for various researchers. The important task of database is to give the opportunity to use data of dynamic models of the biosphere. 
The database allows coordinating information of the ecological, geographical, physical, chemical, economic researches. Such data are under investigation in global ecology and are used in mathematical models of biosphere.

The database has been realized in MS Access 2003. This program represents a modern powerful 32-bit control system of relational databases which can solve a plenty of tasks including construction of diagrams, data presentation on the Internet etc.
Database contains 60 base tables representing the wide set of the ecological, economic, demographic data, data about social processes of 227 countries of the world and 89 subjects of the Russian Federation. Database contains more than 170 parameters; the total number of records exceeds 137000. The technique of linkage of tables was applied to data presentation and generating queries and reports was performed. 

On designing database data the following institutions were used: the World Bank [2] [1], Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA) [3], Environmental Protection Agency (USA), Dorodnitsyn Computing Center, Russian Academy of Sciences [4], the Center on efficiency and safety of woods of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and also the scientific organizations [5], Institutes, Universities of Russia, USA, Japan, and other countries.

The information in a database is concentrated in the countries of the world, in subjects of the Russian Federation, in ecosystem types the world (classification of J. Olson [6]), on stations of geosphere monitoring [5], on several cities (basically data about pollution). Data about ecology, climate, economy, demography, social processes are collected. Besides measured parameters database contains calculated data from model of global biospheric processes of A.M. Tarko [4] and calculated indexes of social and nature development V.S. Golubev [7, 8]. 
Ecological data contain information of CO2 emission and absorption, of net primary production of biota, of phytomass of woody plants, of annual temperatures and precipitation, data about seasonal CO2 concentration at various stations of monitoring for last 25 years. Also in database there are data about manufacturing and a current consumption, export and import of the goods, gross national income (GNI) per capita, gross domestic product (GDP), gross regional income (GRI) per capita for subjects of Russian Federation, quantity of population, life expectancy at birth, fertility, death rate, number of unemployment, number of doctors, etc. 

The basic accent of database has been made on interrelation of carbon dioxide with various parameters because CO2 is one of the basic greenhouse gases of the atmosphere and is important factor determining climate of the Earth and processes in biosphere. The problem of CO2 analysis and modeling became especially actual in connection with acceptance in 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. According to the Convention it was to reduce by 2010 all the industrial emissions of all greenhouse gases up to a level of 1990. After this in 1997 the Kyoto protocol establishes targets for reduction of greenhouse gases emitted by industrialized countries. 

In the given work with the purpose of presentation of some results received on database queries were made for the countries of Europe and subjects of the Russian Federation. The following major data were chosen: demographic [2], economical (GNI per capita) [2], industrial CO2 releases [3], data of calculations at A.M. Tarko's model [1, 4]: CO2 absorption by ecosystems in countries and regions, CO2 budget (difference between industrial releases and absorption by ecosystems), NPP, phytomass and soil humus. Then export in HTML format was performed and the subsequent representation in Internet in form of interactive maps of the Europe and Russia has been made. Initial images of maps and coordinates of the countries were taken from the Internet. 


  1. Tarko A.M. Analysis of Global and Regional Changes in Biogeochemical Carbon Cycle: A Spatially Distributed Model. - Interim Report, IR-03-041, IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria, 2003, 28 pp.
  2. World Development Indicators database, World Bank, April 2005.
  3. Marland G. Boden T. Andres R. J. National CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement Manufacture, and Gas Flaring: 1751-2002. NDP-030. - Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, August 31, 2005. 
  4. Тарко A.M. Anthropogenic Changes of Global Biosphere Processes. Mathematical Modeling. - Moscow, Fizmatlit, 2005, 232 pp., LC 2005478538, (in Russian). 
  5. WMO WDCGGases Data Summary. WDCGG No. 28. GAW Data. Volume IV-Greenhouse and Other Atmospheric Gases. - Japan meteorological Agency in Co-operation with World Meteorological Organization. 2004.
  6. Olson J.S., Watts J.A., and Allison L.J. Major world ecosystem complexes ranked by carbon in live vegetation: a data base. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge, NDP-017, 1985
  7. Bushuev V.V., Golubev V.S., Тарко A.M. Indicators of Socionatural Development of the Russian Regions.-, publishing house "Energy", 2004, 96 pp. (in Russian).
  8. Golubev V.S. Introduction in Synthetic Evolutionary Ecology. - The Papyrus pro, 2001, 320 pp. (in Russian).